Astronomical Observatory of Kharkov National University Department of Solar, Lunar and Planetary Physics
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© 1999-2004 Astronomical Institute of Kharkov University. Department of Solar, Lunar and Planetary Physics

Solar Research. History

First investigations in solar physics were started in KhAO at begin of XX century.

Famous astronomer B.P. Gerasimovich worked in KhAO from 1917 to 1933 years. In 1933 year, when Gerasimovich was a director of Pulkovo observatory, his monograph "Solar physics" was published in Kharkov (in Ukrainian). It was translated into Russian in 1935.

Works in solar physics of P.Parkhomenko was important too. She was first who apply the method of determinate temperature distribution in photosphere correspondingly to law of darkening solar disk to its edge (1934).

Base for optical observations of the Sun was created at 1932, when a spectroheliograph was created in KhAO (the spectrogeliograph was one from first in USSR). Solar monitoring was started in 1932 also. In 1957 for program of IGY the instrument was modernized for simultaneous observation in Ha HI and K232 CaII. The system works to our time. Moreover, cinematographic observations of solar chromosphere activity are carried out by AFR-2 telescope with IPF-4. AZT-8 telescope (mirror diameter is 70 cm) is used for photospheric investigations.

Since 1936 year KhAO take part in all USSR expedition for solar eclipse observation. For 22.09.1968 eclipse diffract spectrograph for cinematographic observations of chromosphere and photosphere in different parts of spectra was created. Basic scientific results in solar physics was obtained by materials of eclipses 22.09.68, 10.07.72, 31.07.81. Large (gamma=1.6) facelae contrasts near limb was found (ños teta=0.02). It was shown that facelau rise above the chromosphere in 100km. First experimental data about changing of darkening curve in undisturbed photosphere near limb was found. All of this observational results talk about inhomogeneous structure of undisturbed chromosphere and facelau. Structured model of facalaue is proposed. (Akimov L.A, Belkina I.L., Dyatel N.P.)


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