1999-2004 Astronomical Institute of Kharkov University. Department
of Solar, Lunar and Planetary Physics
First investigations in solar physics were started
in KhAO at begin of XX century.
Famous astronomer B.P. Gerasimovich worked in KhAO
from 1917 to 1933 years. In 1933 year, when Gerasimovich was a director
of Pulkovo observatory, his monograph "Solar physics" was published
in Kharkov (in Ukrainian). It was translated into Russian in 1935.
Works in solar physics of P.Parkhomenko was important
too. She was first who apply the method of determinate temperature
distribution in photosphere correspondingly to law of darkening
solar disk to its edge (1934).
Base for optical observations of the Sun was created
at 1932, when a spectroheliograph was created in KhAO (the spectrogeliograph
was one from first in USSR). Solar monitoring was started in 1932
also. In 1957 for program of IGY the instrument was modernized for
simultaneous observation in Ha HI and K232 CaII. The system works
to our time. Moreover, cinematographic observations of solar chromosphere
activity are carried out by AFR-2 telescope with IPF-4. AZT-8 telescope
(mirror diameter is 70 cm) is used for photospheric investigations.
Since 1936 year KhAO take part in all USSR expedition
for solar eclipse observation. For 22.09.1968 eclipse diffract spectrograph
for cinematographic observations of chromosphere and photosphere
in different parts of spectra was created. Basic scientific results
in solar physics was obtained by materials of eclipses 22.09.68,
10.07.72, 31.07.81. Large (gamma=1.6) facelae contrasts near limb
was found (ños teta=0.02). It was shown that facelau rise above
the chromosphere in 100km. First experimental data about changing
of darkening curve in undisturbed photosphere near limb was found.
All of this observational results talk about inhomogeneous structure
of undisturbed chromosphere and facelau. Structured model of facalaue
is proposed. (Akimov L.A, Belkina I.L., Dyatel N.P.)